Overview of nail disorders
Nail disorders or nail diseases affect the appearance of the fingernails and toenails. Healthy nails look smooth and have a uniform color. At a small age, a child may develop vertical cracks or his nails may be a bit brittle, and It is dangerous. Scars grow with the nail due to injury. Abnormalities such as scarring and discoloration of the nails can occur as injuries to the fingers and hands.
Some medical conditions can also change the appearance of your nails. However, these changes are difficult to understand. The appearance of your nails is not enough to diagnose a specific disease. The doctor will use this information along with your other symptoms, as well as a physical exam to make a diagnosis. You should always consult your doctor if you have any questions about your nail changes.
List of common nail disorders
The following are the diseases that commonly affect the nails:
Nail psoriasis can lead to nail breakage.
Nail psoriasis occurs when the skin of the nail bed or near the nail bed is affected.
- Breaking nails
- Yellow or brown color changes.
- The structure of the skin under the nails.
- Blood under fingernails
- The nail detaches from the nail bed.
People with nail psoriasis should talk to their doctor and watch for symptoms on their nails. Treatments can include:
- Strong corticosteroid cream
- Tazerotin, for the treatment of bites and discoloration.
- Calcipotriol, to treat the buildup under the nail.
- Corticosteroid injections.
- Laser treatment
Brittle split nails
Brittle broken nails are a common problem seen by dermatologists. This condition can cause brittle, soft, split, or thin nails.
Common causes of brittle nails are repeated wetting and drying of the nails. Although less common, other causes can include iron deficiency or an underlying disease.
The most common symptom is that the nails break easily. People from the state of the American College of Osteopathic Dermatology can often tell if the cause is internal and this condition affects both fingernails and toenails. If there is an external cause, the symptoms usually only affect the nails.
The most common remedy is to use a moisturizer and prevent their nails from being repeatedly exposed to chemicals and water.
Onychogryphosis is when the nail becomes thicker and thicker, often affecting the toe. This cause is one part of the nail to grow larger than the other.
- Circulation problems
When a person has onychomycosis, the nail becomes very thick. In other cases, one part of the nail grows larger than the other. The growth is similar to the ram’s horn, which is why people call it nails from the ram’s horn.
Nail bed removal is the only treatment.
Ingrown nails can cause pain and inflammation in the nails, and in some cases, they can become infected.
According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, genetics play a role in the development of ingrown nails. Also, there are other potential causes:
- Wear tight socks or shoes
- Physical damage
- Swelling and tenderness
Treatments can include:
- Soak the nail in warm water 3 to 4 times a day
- Wear comfortable shoes
- Keep the foot dry
- Taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain
Fungal nail infection
Nail fungus infection is a common condition that causes, the nails to become thick, discolored, and broken. Toenail fungus is more common.
A wide variety of molds and fungi can affect the nails. They grow when the fungus cracks or breaks between the nail and the nail bed. Sweat, athlete’s foot, and salon manicures and pedicures increase the risk of fungal nail infections in people.
- Thick nails
- Nails that are brown, yellow, or white
- Brittle or cracked nails
- The fungus under the nails is often not painful.
The remedies generally include the use of antifungal medications. People may need a prescription or the doctor can remove the nail entirely. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), successful treatment can take more than a year.
Onycholysis is when the toe or nail detaches from the nail bed without pain. It usually occurs slowly over time and can be caused by an underlying condition or injury.
- Chemical exposure
- Allergic contact dermatitis
- Sinks in the water
- Psoriasis, yeast infections, and reactions to certain medications are also common causes.
The main symptom of onycholysis is the separation of the nail from the nail bed. It can change the color of the nail, turning green, yellow, or dull. It can also cause excess skin tissue under the nail, hardening of the nail, or curvature of the nail edges.
Treatment varies depending on the exact cause of the onycholysis. Some potential treatments may include:
- Treat psoriasis with oral or other medications
- Iron deficiency treatment
- Oral antifungal treatments
Prevention is also important. Harvard Health Publishing recommends that people take the following steps:
- Trimming your nails
- Wear rubber gloves when immersing your hands in water.
- Avoid harsh chemicals
Paronychia is an infection that causes redness and swelling around the edges of the nail bed.
There are two types of paronychia: acute and chronic. Acute paronychia occurs when there is an infection due to a direct or indirect injury to the cuticle or nail fold. Chronic paronychia is often the result of allergens or irritants.
Symptoms of severe paronychia include:
- In severe cases, fever and glandular pain.
- Yellow pus
Chronic paronychia often begins in one nail and spreads to others. Symptoms may include:
- Yellow or green pus
- Lifting the nail from the bed
Treatments may vary depending on the cause of the paronychia. In extreme cases, the options may include:
- Shrinks hot
- Topical antibiotics
- Oral antibiotics
- Surgical incision and drainage, in severe cases